Different Types of Calendar in the World: The most important solar calendar that become across is the Gregorian calendar the most important lunar calendar that we are familiar with is the hijri calendar and the most important lunisolar calendar is the shaaka calendar or the Indian national calendar now.
What is Solar Calendar?
In a Solar Calendar, A Solar year is when we talk about the earth being rotating outside or basically earth revolving around the Sun. So when the earth revolves around the Sun we have two halves that are understood. the uttarayan and the dakshinayan, the uttarayan is the rising phase and dakshinayan is the declining phase and one solar year is interestingly equal to one day and one night.
What is Lunar Calendar?
To understand Lunar calendar, we need to understand a lunar year, It is a year being divided into the lunar months which are also known as twelve lunations so we have the synodic year or lunations which is another word used for the solar months and this solar month usually consists of 29.2 to 29.8 days. So it’s smaller than the Gregorian month. Now when it’s smaller than the Gregorian month what would happen is, you would have each day which would be accumulated from each of the months and every two-and-a-half years we would have an extra month that would be there and this extra month is what is known as the adhikmas.
So adhikmas comes from the lunar calendar that we try to understand, which is of lesser number of days, so each month which is around 29 days approximately so we have one or two days that remain in every month. So every two-and-a-half years that’s every third and fifth year we have adhikmas that is there, which is accumulation of these days added up towards the end.
What is Lunisolar Calendar?
A Lunisolar Calendar year is where you consider a year on the cycle of solar calendars however when you consider months on a lunar basis. so when you have a year on a solar basis and months on the lunar basis we have the lunisolar calendar.
A lunisolar calendar is basically the adjustment of days and months which takes place during this time. Now interestingly under the solar month we have the twelve constellations or the twelve rashis which become the twelve months and these are the twelve zodiac signs as well. The hindi version of a lunar day is what is known as Tithi. However the solar day is what is known as Devas. this Thithi is smaller than the Devas. The Dewas is 24 hours however the Thithi is 23 hours and 37 minutes. So tithi is smaller than dewas that means the lunar day is smaller than the solar day.
Hijri calendar/ Islamic Calendar
Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar started with night 1622 ad and that was considered as a zero here. We have 12 months that are given under a Hijri calendar. The first month is known as the Muharram, where any kind of travel or businesses is prohibited. the ninth month which is known as Ramadan which is the month of fasting and purification and each of the months having their own importance. one of the month is known as suffer itself the second month where you consider it most auspicious for travel business and any other purpose. This Hijri calendar again had 354 days that were there and this was given by prophet Mohammed.
The Islamic calendar is the last vestiges of lunar calendars in our society. To explain lunar calendars in short, they are organized into twelve months where each month starts with the new moon and the length of the month will be either 29 or 30 days long. The year just like the old Roman calendar adds up to either 354 or 355 days of course this causes huge drifts in terms of seasons from year to year and is why Muslims observe Ramadan a month-long period of fasting.
At different times of the Gregorian year depending on how it lines up with the Islamic lunar calendar though the calendar is based on scientific phenomena like the cycles of the Sun and the moon, it is important to remember that the calendar is not natural at its core of a calendar is a philosophical and cultural Invention.
Gregorian Calendar/ Christian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar or Christian Calendar is the solar calendar which has 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds and this was done on the birthday of Lord Christ and it is one of the most scientific calendars that is considered. the first day of this year starts with 1st of January so with every 1st of January you have a new Gregorian calendar that begins.
Zoroastrian calendar interestingly has two new years. one new year comes on the 21st March and that is known as the Jamshedi Navroz and the other is known as Kadmi which comes on the 31st of August. so two new years that are considered under the Zoroastrian calendar.
Hebrew Calendar/ Jewish Calendar
The Jewish month begins with a thin Crescent the moon grows until it is full, wanes until it could not be seen and eventually reappears. This cycle takes approximately 29 and a half days. since a month needs to consist of complete days, a month and the Jewish calendar is sometimes 29 days and sometimes 30 days. The solar orbit consists of 365 and a quarter days. The difference between 12 lunar months in the solar year is almost 11 days, the Torah however states that Passover must be in springtime if no adjustment were made, Passover would occur 11 days earlier each year. eventually drifting into winter then fall summer and spring again.
The Jewish calendar thus presents two challenges, who determines whether a month is 29 or 30 days? how can the lunar and solar cycles be coordinated and balanced? in biblical and miss Nyak times the Sanhedrin was responsible for determining the months and years on the 30th day of every month they would cross-examine witnesses who claimed to have seen the new moon. if the witnesses accounts were corroborated that day would be declared the first of the month. the previous month was now retroactively determined to have had only 29 days. if no testimony were accepted the Sanhedrin would declare the following day the first of the new month.
In order to balance the solar and lunar cycles, the Sanhedrin periodically inserted an extra month into a year creating a Shana Lulu Barrett or pregnant year more commonly known as a leap year. This was the situation until the middle of the 4th century at which time the Romans forcibly disbanded the Sanhedrin. hillo the second the last leader of the Sanhedrin and a descendant of Rabia hood Hennessey anticipated this, therefore before the Sanhedrin was disbanded they established a fixed calendar for posterity.
The Sanhedrin declared and established all future new months and leap years granting the fixed calendar the same validity as the original system. to this day Jews throughout the world use this. sophisticated structure created by Rabbi Hillel. throughout the centuries the calendar has been one of the backbones of Jewish unity as it is ensured that Jews the world-over celebrate and observe the Jewish holidays on the very same day.
What is Google Calendar?
Google Calendar is part of the Google Apps suite of Applications. The Google Apps suite includes gmail, calendar, Doc’s, sites, videos, groups and even more.
Do you want to know about google calendar? Google calendar is the scheduling application. With Google Calendar you can easily create events, manage your resources and time. it’s easy to share your schedule with coworkers, family and friends. You can even give them access to make changes to your events. your calendar is available when you’re on the road. You can access your calendar through your mobile phone. you can even receive SMS notifications. using calendar popup email and desktop reminders you’ll never forget about your events. calendar is integrated with gmail so you receive your calendar invitations and can respond to those invitations through gmail. google calendar is easy to use in a nice complement to the rest of the Google applications.
What is Outlook Calendar/ Office 365 Calendar?
There are two main ways in which you can access your Outlook calendar. The first way is to go to the start menu and to type the word outlook into the search box. when the Microsoft outlook icon appears double click on it to launch the outlook client.
If however you are working from off campus and need to check your calendar, you can do so using outlook web access. one way to bring up the outlook web access login screen is by typing in office.live.com/start/calendar.aspx and this will bring up the login screen where you can fill in your username and your password. if you wish to share your calendar with other colleagues.
You can do this by selecting the calendar tab double check that the home tab is selected along the top menu bar and find the button which says share calendar, click on this option and a sharing invitation will appear. select the recipient of your sharing invitation by clicking to and search for the person’s name in the global address list, once their name is highlighted click on to and then ok if you wish to be able to view your colleagues calendar.
To set up a meeting double-click on the date and time at which you wish your meeting to take place. this will bring up the appointment window to invite others to this meeting. click on the invite attendees button and using the global address list, type in the names of the colleagues you wish to invite, once their name is highlighted click on the required button and repeat this process for the number of colleagues you wish to invite. once your colleagues are listed in the required box, click OK. in order to ensure that the meeting you’re setting up doesn’t clash with your colleagues calendar items. you can double-click on the scheduling assistant button.
This will enable you to view your colleagues availability and to adjust your meeting time as appropriate. once you’re happy that you find a suitable time and date click on the appointment button. write a message if you wish and click send, the scheduled meeting will then appear in your calendar.
What is Apple Calendar/ iCloud Calendar?
Do you want to know about Apple calendar?, We are going to discuss the basics of how to use and manage the Apple calendar. In any apple device, we will first start with the layout of The calendar application. we have 4 calendars on the top of the year, month, week and day. then on the top left we have the year and if you want to go to the present day, you can press the today tab on the bottom left of the screen and it brings you to the current day.
Then, we have the calendars tab on the middle of the screen towards the bottom, you can click and view all your calendars and add calendars which we will show you how to do later. then we have the inbox just, receive calendars from friends, family and coworkers and the ones you’ve replied to. Then we have the Search tab and the add events button and those can help you find events that you’ve had on your schedule and add new ones to the tutorial.
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